The series of RNA folding events that occur during transcription can critically influence cellular RNA function. Here, we present reconstructing RNA dynamics from data (R2D2), a method to uncover details of cotranscriptional RNA folding. We model the folding of the Escherichia coli signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA and show that it requires specific local structural fluctuations within a key hairpin to engender efficient cotranscriptional conformational rearrangement into the functional structure. Moreover, a cotranscriptional folding intermediate could be cleaved in vitro by recombinant E. coli RNase P, suggesting potential cotranscriptional processing. These results from experiment-guided multi-scale modeling demonstrate that even an RNA with a simple functional structure can undergo complex folding and processing during synthesis.
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